The US sanctions also targeted two other Iranian officials whom the administration said are responsible for ordering abuses against citizens, including the denial of medical care and access to legal representation for protesters in Iranian jails. However, the president specified it would be the last time he signs the waiver unless the deal is modified.
In October, he refused to recertify for Congress that Iran was complying, accusing it of "not living up to the spirit" of the agreement.
The US Congress requires the president to decide periodically whether to certify Iran's compliance with the deal and issue a waiver to allow US sanctions to remain suspended.
On Thursday Iran sanctions expert Jonathan Schanzer from the Foundation for Defense of Democracies tweeted, "A U.S. official I spoke to today believes Iranian expenditures on foreign adventures, nuclear research and missiles, coupled with losses from graft and corruption, have cost the regime $150b".
"One of the things that should be noted, and it's often overlooked, is that the sanctions that were imposed on Iran's ballistic missile programs are still in place", he says.
"These provisions must have no expiration date".
Other Iranian officials repeated warnings that the country could return to uranium enrichment at a far greater level than before the deal was concluded.
Those hit by the sanctions include: Iranian judiciary chief Sadegh Amoli Larijani; the Rajaee Shahr Prison and its director, Gholamreza Ziaei; the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Electronic Warfare and Cyber Defense Organization; Iran's Supreme Council of Cyberspace and National Cyberspace Center; Malaysia-based Green Wave Telecommunication and its Iranian director Morteza Razavi; and the Iran Helicopter Support and Renewal Company and Iran Aircraft Industries.
Iran has complained that U.S. sanctions not connected to nuclear activity have effectively cancelled out any financial benefits it expected from the 2015 deal.
Following the announcement, Mr Zarif tweeted: "Trump's policy & today's announcement amount to desperate attempts to undermine a solid multilateral agreement, maliciously violating its paras 26, 28 & 29".
In accordance with a mechanism set up by Congress, the nuclear agreement has to be re-assessed by an American president every 90 days. "$200b. since the signing of the [initial draft nuclear deal with Iran in late]... in 2013".
Officials in the Trump administration have suggested that Trump plans to extend the waivers that lifted sanctions on Iran, but could seek new measures over issues such as human rights issues and missile programs. The speculation is that he will keep us in the deal but apply some very specific sanctions to Iranian officials with ties to terrorism. "Busy four months ahead".
The deal was struck by Iran and six world powers - the US, Britain, France, Germany, China and Russian Federation - in 2015 under the Obama administration.
"Russia will do everything in its power to save the agreement", he said.
The British and German foreign ministries said they had taken note of the decision and would confer with France before deciding on a course of action.
He also challenged Washington to come up with a better alternative.
"The president said he is either going to fix it or cancel it", Tillerson said of the overall deal.
The messages from the foreign ministers of France, Britain and Germany sought to acknowledge the range of Western concerns including Iran's ballistic missile development and the crackdowns following street protests across Iran earlier this month.
Iran says the missiles it has tested are not created to carry nuclear warheads and insists its nuclear programme is entirely peaceful.
While most European leaders were silent Saturday, those who reacted were unhappy with Trump's approach.
French President Emmanuel Macron spoke to Trump about the deal on Thursday, Macron's office said.
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